When indicators of leakage are found within the identified leakage buffer zone, they should be investigated and, if possible, a negotiation to reduce or minimise these activities should occur.  The project managers should, where possible, reduce leakage through improved project management and the encouragement of sustainable economic activities within the project area.

Emissions from land use changes within the agreed project leakage buffer areas should be assumed to result from displacement of activities from within the project area unless they can be shown to be externally driven. Evidence for external (as opposed to internal leakage) drivers would include interviews with local people. Emissions from land use change within the leakage areas should be quantified using standard methods recommended in GOFC-GOLD Source Book, consistent with those used for estimating changes to carbon stocks within the project areas.

A leakage zone of 10 km from the boundaries of the project area is recommended. The NFS does not require projects to estimate the potential impacts of project activities on national or international markets.


GOFC-GOLD, 2013, A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals associated with deforestation, gains and losses of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests, and forestation. GOFC-GOLD Report version COP19-2, (GOFC-GOLD Land Cover Project Office, Wageningen University, The Netherlands). Available at: https://www.gofcgold.wur.nl/redd/sourcebook/GOFC-GOLD_Sourcebook.pdf